Wednesday, September 2, 2020

A History of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden :: Essays Papers

A History of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Developing from its unassuming beginnings as a debris dump in the late 1800's, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden has come to speak to today the absolute best in urban planting and green presentation. The Brooklyn Botanical Garden blossoms in perhaps the biggest city on the planet. Every year in excess of 750,000 individuals visit the very much manicured formal and casual nurseries that are a demonstration of nature's essentialness in the midst of urban block and cement. In excess of 12,000 sorts of plants from around the world are shown on 52 sections of land and in the acclaimed Steinhardt Conservatory. There's continually something new to see. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden offers an assortment of open projects throughout the entire year. Visits, shows, move exhibitions and symposia are consistently on the program, just as extraordinary one-time occasions that include components of the Garden at their pinnacle. Each spring the Brooklyn Botanic Garden praises the blooming of the Japanese Che rry Trees with our yearly Sakura Matsuri (Cherry Blossom Festival), and each fall is spiced up with our multicultural Chili Pepper FiestaA not many of the Numerous Gardens inside a Garden incorporate the Children's Garden, tended every year by around 450 children, ages 3 through 18; The Cranford Rose Garden, showing in excess of 5,000 shrubberies of about 1,200 assortments; The Herb Garden, with in excess of 300 assortments - herbing is clearly surprising the nation as individuals rediscover restorative, culinary, and different utilizations; and The Japanese Hill-and-Pond Garden, a delightful creation highlighting a Viewing Pavilion, Waiting House, Torri, hallowed places, spans, stone lights, cascades, lake, and scaled down scene. About portion of the BBG's 52 sections of land is committed to the Systematic Collections: trees, bushes, and herbaceous plants orchestrated to show their transformative movement. Guests will likewise appreciate the Conifer Collection, Daffodil Hill, Oriental Flowering Cherries, and other unique assortments. The Steinhardt Conservatory The Steinhardt Conservatory is a $25 million complex holding BBG's broad indoor assortment in reasonable situations that mimic a scope of worldwide living spaces. The Tropical Pavilion, 65 feet high, re-makes a downpour backwoods complete with a cascade and streams. Vegetation from the Amazon Basin, African Rain Forest, and tropical eastern Asia flourish here. The Helen Mattin Warm Temperate Pavilion houses plants from focal China, the Mediterranean, Australasia, southern Africa, and the western U.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Computer Analysis Lab 2 Essay

PC Analysis Lab 2 Essay PC Analysis Lab 2 Essay Janel Paffie TB143 Unit 2 1. PC Analysis Hard Drive Capacity Slam Processor Speed Uncommon Features Cost HP Pavilion Desktop AMD A8 Series 2000GB 8GB 2.0Ghz Worked in Wireless system $499.99 Dell Inspiron Desktop-Intel Core i3 1000GB 8GB 3.6Ghz Worked in Wireless system; Bluetooth; HDMI yield $479.99 HP-15.6† Touch-Screen Laptop Intel Core i3 750GB 6GB 1.9Ghz Touchscreen; HDMI yield $399.99 Toshiba-Satellite 15.6† Laptop Intel Celeron 500GB 4GB 2.58Ghz Bluetooth; HDMI yield $229.99 2. Calling and Computers Film Maker: This calling requires a PC equipped for dealing with a memory-busting remaining task at hand. Quick, adequate memory, and the most recent designs and sound cards are important to help the continuous media work. So as to run programming required at a sensible level, make a point to have an enormous enough hard roll (over 160GB), a lot of RAM (more than 4GB), and a quality sound card. Proficient Gamer: Desktops are the best wagered for gaming. Quick processors and video cards devour huge amounts of intensity and produce huge amounts of warmth, which is dealt with better by a work area. A quad-center processor is prescribed because of the ascent of current games utilizing extra centers. For smooth designs and a progressively vivid encounter you will need a quick video card. The processor and video card are of equivalent significance. Greater part of games will run on 4GB of RAM, yet 8GB is suggested. To help with load times, a strong state drive with over 200GB of capacity is exhorted. Computerized

Friday, August 21, 2020

Populism - Definition in American Politics

Populism - Definition in American Politics President Donald Trump was more than once depicted as a populist during the 2016 presidential race. Trump styled himself as a populist during his colorfully provocative battle, The New York Times composed, professing to hear, comprehend and channel the common laborers Americans so wrongly disregarded by different pioneers. Asked Politico: Is Donald Trump the Perfect Populist, one with more extensive intrigue to one side and the inside than his antecedents in late American political history? The Christian Science Monitor opined that Trumps interesting populism guarantees an adjustment in administration maybe equivalent to parts of the New Deal or the early long periods of the Reagan upset. However, what, precisely, is populism? Furthermore, I don't get it's meaning to be a populist? There are numerous definitions. Meaning of Populism Populism is commonly characterized as a method for talking and crusading for the benefit of the necessities of the individuals or the little man rather than the wealthy tip top. Populist talk outlines issues, for example, the economy, for instance, as theâ angry, distressed and dismissed attempting to beat a degenerate oppressor, whoever that oppressor might be. George Packer, a veteran political writer for The New Yorker, portrayed populism as a position and a talk in excess of a belief system or a lot of positions. It talks about a clash of good against abhorrent, requesting straightforward responses to troublesome problems.â History of Populism Populism has its foundations in the grassroots development of the Peoples and Populist parties in the late 1800s. The Peoples Party was established in Kansas in 1890 in the midst of sorrow and a far reaching conviction among ranchers and workers that the legislature was ruled by huge cash premiums, the political antiquarian William Safire composed. A national gathering with comparable interests, the Populist Party, was established a year later, in 1891. The national party battled for open responsibility for, the phone framework, and an annual duty that would request more from wealthier Americans. The last thought is a typical populist thought utilized in current decisions. It is like the Buffett Rule, which would raise burdens on the wealthiest Americans. The Populist Party kicked the bucket in 1908 however a large number of its goals wait on today. The national partys stage read, to a limited extent: We meet amidst a country brought to the skirt of good, political, and material ruin. Debasement rules the polling station, the Legislatures, the Congress, and contacts even the ermine of the seat. The individuals are disheartened; the vast majority of the States have been constrained to confine the voters at the surveying spots to forestall all inclusive terrorizing and pay off. The papers are generally sponsored or gagged, popular feeling quieted, business prostrated, homes secured with contracts, work ruined, and the land amassing in the hands of entrepreneurs. The urban laborers are denied the option to sort out for self-security, imported pauperized work pounds their wages, an employee standing armed force, unrecognized by our laws, is built up to kill them, and they are quickly deteriorating into European conditions. The products of the work of millions are intensely taken to develop monster fortunes for a couple, uncommon throughout the entire existence of humankind; and the ow ners of those, thusly, scorn the republic and imperil freedom. From the equivalent productive belly of administrative treachery we breed the two incredible classes-tramps and tycoons. Populist Ideas Current populism regularly is thoughtful to the battles of white, working class Americans and depicts Wall Street brokers, undocumented laborers, and U.S. exchange accomplices including China as evil. Populist thoughts including vigorously burdening the wealthiest Americans, fixing security along the U.S. outskirt with Mexico, raising the lowest pay permitted by law, extending Social Security and forcing solid levies on exchange with different nations trying to shield American occupations from going overseas.â Populist Politicians The principal genuine populist presidential applicant was the Populist Partys chosen one for president in the 1892 political race. The chosen one, General James B. Weaver, won 22 constituent votes and more than 1 million real votes. In current occasions, Weavers crusade would have been viewed as an incredible achievement; independents regularly earn just a little portion of the vote. William Jennings Bryan is maybe the most celebrated populist in American history. The Wall Street Journal once depicted Bryan as the Trump before Trump. His discourse at the Democratic National Convention in 1896, whichâ was said to have animated the group to a craze, intended to propel the premiums of little Midwestern ranchers who felt they were being exploited by the banks. Bryan needed to move to a bimetallic gold-silver standard.â Huey Long, who filled in as the legislative head of Louisiana and a U.S. congressperson, was additionally viewed as a populist. He railed against well off tycoons and their enlarged fortunes and proposed to force steep assessments on the most extravagant Americans and disseminate the income to the poor despite everything experiencing the impacts of the Great Depression. Long, who had presidential goals, needed to set a base yearly salary of $2,500. Robert M. La Follette Sr. was a congressman and legislative leader of Wisconsin who took on degenerate lawmakers and enormous business, which he accepted impacted issues of open interest.â Thomas E. Watson of Georgia was an early populist and the partys bad habit presidential hopefulâ in 1896. Watson had won a seat in Congress by supporting the recovery of enormous tracts of land allowed to companies, canceling national banks, dispensing with paper cash, and cutting duties on low-pay residents, as per the New Georgia Encyclopedia. He wasâ alsoâ a southern rabble rouser and narrow minded person, as per the Encyclopedia. Watson composed of the danger of outsiders to America: The rubbish of creation has been dumped on us. A portion of our chief urban areas are more remote than American. The most risky and debasing crowds of the Old World have attacked us. The bad habit and wrongdoing which they have planted in our middle are sickening and alarming. What carried these Goths and Vandals to our shores? The makers are mostly to fault. They needed modest work: and they didn’t care a revile how much mischief to our future may be the result of their coldhearted arrangement. Trump routinely denounced against the foundation in his fruitful presidential crusade. He consistently vowed to deplete the bog in Washington, D.C., an unflattering depiction of the Capitol as a degenerate play area for tycoons, uncommon interests, lobbyists and fat, withdrawn officials. Many years of disappointment in Washington, and many years of uncommon interestâ dealing must reach a conclusion. We need to break the pattern of debasement, and we need to allow new voices to go into taxpayer supported organization, Trump stated.â The autonomous presidential competitor Ross Perot was comparative in style and talk to Trump. Perot fared well by building his crusade on voter disdain of the foundation, or the political first class, in 1992. He won aâ startling 19 percent of the famous vote that year. Donald Trump and Populism So is Donald Trump a populist? He unquestionably utilized populist articulations during his crusade, depicting his supporters as American laborers who have not seen their budgetary status improve since the finish of the Great Recession and those dismissed by the political and cultural world class. Trump, and besides Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders, addressed a class of hands on, battling white collar class voters who accept the economy was fixed. Michael Kazin, the creator of The Populist Persuasion, told Slate in 2016: Trump communicates one part of populism, which is outrage at the foundation and different elites. He trusts Americans have been sold out by those elites. In any case, the opposite side of populism is a feeling of an ethical people, individuals who’ve been sold out for reasons unknown and have a particular personality, regardless of whether they are laborers, ranchers, or citizens. Though with Trump, I don’t truly get a lot of a feeling of who the individuals are. Obviously writers state he’s talking for the most part to white common laborers individuals, however he doesn’t state that. Composed Politico: Trump’s stage joins places that are shared by numerous populists however are an abomination to development traditionalists a guard of Social Security, an assurance of widespread medicinal services, financial patriot exchange approaches. President Barack Obama, who Trump prevailing in the White House, disagreed with naming Trump a populist, in any case. Said Obama: â€Å"Somebody else who has never demonstrated any respect for laborers, has never battled for the benefit of social equity issues or ensuring that poor children are getting a conventional took shots at life or have human services - truth be told, have neutralized monetary open door for laborers and normal individuals, they don’t out of nowhere become a populist since they express something disputable so as to win votes. Undoubtedly, some of Trumps pundits blamed him for fake populism, of utilizing populist talk during the battle yet of needing to desert his populist stage once in office. Examinations of Trumps charge proposition found that the greatest supporters would be the wealthiest Americans. Trump, subsequent to winning the political decision, additionally selected individual extremely rich people and lobbyists to assume jobs in his White House. He likewise strolled back a portion of his searing effort talk on taking action against Wall Street and gathering together and extraditing outsiders who are living in the United States unlawfully.

Sunday, May 31, 2020

Implications of the Second Theater Scene in Stephen Crane’s Maggie A Girl of the Streets - Literature Essay Samples

With the second theater scene of Stephen Crane’s novella Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, the plot of the selected play is used ironically to provide insight to the hopes and concerns of its audience. Because the theater is a form of escape for Maggie and those of the Bowery tenement specifically, the strife of characters is very much reflective of their reality and elicits raw, visceral reactions — to both their â€Å"imagined† and â€Å"real† condition (31). This is seen in the chosen melodrama wherein a â€Å"heroine was rescued from the palatial home of her guardian,† which is ironic in that its inevitably hopeful and happy ending both simplifies and falsifies life — setting up the idea that those above the audience are always happy and that all those less than are innocently unhappy, until they can better their circumstances (31). The plot also reflects the concerns of the audience, affirming that the â€Å"poor and virtuous† may â €Å"eventually surmount the wealthy and wicked,† giving hope to the otherwise hopeless, and playing off of their subconscious desires — although providing no real method for ascension other than random acts of heroism (32). This unrealistic promise of heroics is ironic too, as it is what likely leads Maggie to see Pete as her only escape from predetermined reality, and gives reason for her attachment — as she believes him to be her â€Å"hero with the beautiful sentiments† (31). Crane uses this example of disillusionment as a form of commentary on the poor’s distorted understanding of social mobility, which he ultimately argues perpetuates the cycle of poverty in the tenement. Additionally, the choice of diction employed by Crane in his descriptions of the audience holds negative, monster-like connotations which serve as a more basic commentary on the ironic position of power perceived by the audience when at the theater. These â€Å"shady persons† are from the perspective of Maggie, â€Å"unmistakably bad men,† and are seen throughout the play showering â€Å"maledictions† upon similarly villainous characters, who now represent the upper classes (31). The audie nce is also seen vulgarly â€Å"hiss[ing] vice† but â€Å"applaud[ing] virtue† with the intent to show support for those â€Å"unfortunate and oppressed† characters they now identify with — uncharacteristically showing a new, â€Å"sincere admiration for virtue† (31). This is very much unlike the proper etiquette of a traditional â€Å"uptown† theater, but understandable of a tenement audience entranced by the theater’s effect of â€Å"transcendental realism† and hypnotized to the teachings of its plot, which bestow upon them a new, third-person perspective and unite them under common sentiments (31). Together, they â€Å"encouraged the struggling hero with cries jeered the villain [and] sought out the painted misery and hugged it as akin† (31, 32). Their reactions to the play, as well as the plot itself, are reflective of their own desires, and it is only within the theater that they are provided the power to ensure these things, and the position to â€Å"confront† and â€Å"denounce† the rich — which is unsurprisingly taken full advantage of (32). In Crane’s narration of the scene, the reader is moved between a wide, generalized perspective and a descriptive one presented through the perspective of Maggie, in order to provide insight to her psychology rather than the greater audience’s. Hence, it is Maggie who perceives the fine details of the scene; the church windows as â€Å"happy-hued,† heroine’s home as â€Å"palatial,† her guardian as â€Å"cruel,† and the hero as man of â€Å"beautiful sentiments† (31, 32). This stylistic perspective change is utilized both to share the thoughts of Maggie, and to relate the details of the melodrama back to the larger, outside themes and progression of the novella. For instance, with the hero’s â€Å"erratic march from poverty in the first act, to wealth and triumph in the final,† there again lies support for the idea of social mobility, which, the reader is shown, is not only widely praised by the audience, but leads Maggie to â€Å"think† that perhaps similar â€Å"culture and refinementcould be acquired by a girl who lived in a tenement house† (32). While this likely occurs in many minds of the audience, it is done so ironically in this instance, as Maggie eventually becomes a prostitute — the only role for which she can comparably ascend and descend the social scale. Stephen Crane’s descriptions throughout the novel use naturalism to suggest that it is the tenement which dehumanize poor individuals, but attributes the perpetuation of their status to the distorted perception of reality shown in the plots of the Bowery’s popular melodramas. To illustrate this, irony is employed throughout the descriptions of the plays, commenting on the use of their plot for the audience’s consolation, which ultimately distracts from directed efforts to better their own positions, but leaves them â€Å"with raised spirits† (32).

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Mental Health and Violence Essay - 1563 Words

Are people with mental illness more violent than the rest of the population? If you only listen to the media, you are sure to answer, â€Å"Yes†. However, most of us know that the media is not the most reliable source of information. In fact, the media has a Tendency to bend the facts, plucking out stories and statistics that colour the truth in order to popularize their Medium. Most people who have mental health problems experience symptoms, and gradually recover. They may pick Up where they left off, or head in a new direction in life. Everybody’s experience of mental ill health is Different and everybody’s recovery is therefore individual. For a minority of people, the symptoms of their mental health problem might lead them to act†¦show more content†¦The real issue is the fact that people With mental illness are two and a half to four times more likely to be the victims of violence than any other group In our society. A small group of people with mental illness (those with severe and untreated symptoms of schizophrenia with Psychosis, major depression or bi-polar mood disorder) may have an increased rate of violence. In this group, Individuals who are suffering from psychotic symptoms that cause them to feel threatened or manipulated by Outside forces have a greater tendency towards violent behaviour. In spite of this, with early assessment and Appropriate treatment, individuals with severe illness are no more dangerous than the general population. Community treatment programs have also been found to be helpful in the management of behaviours that lead to crime. We want to emphasize that the actual number of people who belong to this group is extremely small, particularly When compared to the overall number of people who are coping with mental illness.Unfortunately, the media spotlights this small group of individuals, unfairly painting all people with Mental illness as potentially violent criminals. There is no doubt that the results of a rampage can be tragic, But the media tends to exploit the drama and leave out the context.Aside from the group of severely ill individuals, multiple studies have shown that mental illness alone does Not incline a person to violence. Instead, it is the influenceShow MoreRelatedViolence, Mental, And Mental Health3149 Words   |  13 PagesMonique Nguyen Global Health Paula Palmer 3 December 2014 Violence and mental health in Brazil Today, mental disorders, violence and injuries are more prominent in low- and middle-income countries (Rebeiro, 2013). Violence stems from all age groups and genders, however, Brazil faces disproportionately high rates of violence. Violence is a major contributor to morbidity and individual and collective costs (Reichenheim, 2011). Unfortunately, nearly 90% of people living in Sao Paulo and Rio de JaneiroRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Mental Health829 Words   |  4 Pagesstated that when ethnic minority children and youth are exposed to community violence their mental health is greatly affected. It was hypothesized that exposure to community violence would negatively relate to mental health outcomes. Their sample consisted of 281 African American undergraduate college students in a Midwest University. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years. Participants completed Exposure to Community Violence survey (Richters and Saltzman, 1990); the Racial Socialization Questionnaire-TeenRead MoreThe Effects Of Sexual Violence On Mental Health1478 Words   |  6 PagesDescribe the type(s) of violence this film portrays. The type of violence that is illustrated in the film â€Å"The Hunting Ground† is sexual violence. Sexual violence has a profound impact on physical and mental health. It can be directed against both men and women (Ch. 6 page 149). Sexual violence has been associated with a number of mental health and behavioral problems in adolescence and adulthood (Ch. 6 pg. 163). Its impact on mental health can be as serious as its physical impact, and may be equallyRead MoreVideo Games : Violence And Mental Health Essay2077 Words   |  9 PagesA growing sense of concern about violence in communities across America has prompted many people to step back and evaluate the causes of this violence. Although there seem to be many contributing factors, one that is repeatedly highlighted is the depiction of violence in the media. A substantial amount of research has been done on certain forms of media, especially television and video games, while other forms have been almost completely neglected. In this paper, I will attempt to extend the implicationsRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children s Mental Health941 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction to Domestic Violence Domestic violence refers to any occurrence of threatening abuse, behavior, or violence (financial, emotional, physical, psychological, or sexual) between adults who are present or past intimate partners or family members (Hester, Pearson, Harwin, 2006, p. 18). It is also known by an assortment of other names: battering, family violence, marital abuse, partner abuse, and wife beating, just to name a few. Domestic violence can be described as choking, burning, beatingRead MoreMental Health Problems And Violence Among Criminal Offenders1784 Words   |  8 Pagesbetween mental health problems and violence among criminal offenders. The purpose of the study conducted by (Felson, Silver and Vaneseltine) was to examine whether criminal offenders with mental health problems were more likely to commit violent crimes in comparison to offenders without mental health problems. (p 405). There are elements which will be critiqued and analysed further. There is a focus of a particular type of study which is the relationship between mental health problems and violence againstRead MoreHow Domestic Violence Affects Children As Well As The Mental Health Of Its Victims1744 Words   |  7 Pagesresearch topic. This chapter will provide a historical background on domestic violence, a historical perspective of the services provided and an overview of different forms of domestic violence. The goal of this literature review is to examine the statistical information that is presented as it relates to domestic violence. This literature review will also reveal how domestic violence affects children as well as the mental health of its victims. In addition, this chapter will include the Afrocentric perspectiveRead MoreDoes Expositor Help Community Violence Lead Mental Health Problems? Essay1346 Words   |  6 PagesThe research question is does expositor to community violence lead to mental health problems in adolescences? This question it bei ng tested based on the adolescence’s ethnicity, gender, and level of education. This was clearly stated in the beginning pages of the article. The independent variable is how much exposure each of the adolescences had to violence while in high school. The dependent variable is the amount of psychological distress experienced by the adolescent. The controlled variablesRead MoreIn Recent Years, Violence Has Been Increasing And Causing1206 Words   |  5 PagesIn recent years, violence has been increasing and causing alarm due to the rising statistics and mass shootings. While most people see violence as a danger to our society, few try to understand what is really causing the violence. This literature review examines one approach to possibly reducing violence: better mental health care. This paper discusses the links between mental health and violence, and how proper medication and treatment can help to reduce violence in our communities. This reviewRead MoreThere Is Currently A Critical Global Shortage Of Nurses1222 Words   |  5 Pagesparticularly in specialty areas such as mental health nursing. Psychiatric nurses are frequent victims of burn out and workplace violence because of the nature of patients they serve, the demands of the institution, and the shortage of trained staff. According to Qi et al. (2014), â€Å"N urses working in mental health hospitals have been found to suffer from higher levels of work-related stress, as they are frequently exposed to violent behavior by mental health patients compared to nurses who work in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Twelve Who Ruled †Why Tenacious Terror was Necessary Essay

In the year 1793-94, the Reign of Terror invoked by the twelve members of Committee of Public Safety (CPS) was unavoidable and led the way for a metamorphosis to occur within France during the French Revolution. While the word terror is often associated with Halloween or stories meant to be frightening for fun, the word held a far more serious meaning to the people of France. The theme of fear allowed the CPS members to change the monarchy to a revolutionary government in hopes of eventually enacting the constitution already written (75). A group of well-educated radical republicans known as the Jacobins developed the CPS in the fifth year of the French revolution and each of the twelve members dealt with a monthly election to continue†¦show more content†¦The twelve divided the work and each member was much like the United States cabinet officials are today. Each member assigned a task such as Finance, Security, etc. Originally, no member could make a decision without seven other members to avoid personal vendettas (67). As discussed in class, the CPS worked about twelve hour each day with only one day off per week, which meant every ten days. The first order of business for the CPS was to hunt for possible candidates who participated or potentially were involved in counter-revolutionary activities. The main suspects included â€Å"†¦refractory priests, à ©migrà ©s (nobles and clergy members who fled the country because of the revolution), hoarders and monopolists (66).† This did not stop the CPS from watching the entire population of France, but was an obvious place to begin considering the nobles were part of the reason why the French Revolution evolved. A new instrument emerged to attempt to control the people, the guillotine. In class, the device was to gift the nobles a humane and quick death, transcended to a tool of terror by the twelve members of the CPS. The guillotine became a symbol of the French Revolution and ultimately caus ed the CPS to fall withShow MoreRelatedPropaganda by Edward L Bernays34079 Words   |  137 Pages................................. THE MECHANICS OF PROPAGANDA . . CHAPTER I ORGANIZING CHAOS THE conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Evaluation of the Protective E... free essay sample

Evaluation of the Protective Effect of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L) Seed Oil against Diazinon Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male RatsAqeel Khaleel Ibraheem1, 2; Tamara Shaker Mahmoud1; Ahmed M. Attia1, 3 1Department of Environmental Studies, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University2 Present address: Biology, Environmental Studies, Ministry of Education, Education Babylon, Iraq3Corresponding author:Ahmed M. AttiaProfessor of Environmental ToxicologyDepartment of Environmental StudiesInstitute of Graduate Studies ResearchAlexandria University163, Horrya Av. El-Shatbey, P.O. Box 832 # 21526Alexandria – EgyptEmail: [emailprotected]: +203 42 95 007; Fax: +203 42 85 792Abstract:Diazinon (DZN), is a commonly used organophosphorous (OP) pesticide to control a variety of insects in agriculture and in the environment. Moringa oleifera seed oil (MSO) is a pharmacologically active with documented antioxidant activity. The present study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of DZN-induced liver damage. Twenty male Albino rats Sprague–Dawley were randomized into 4 groups. Group I: served as normal control given vehicle, 2) Group II: DZN group-rats received orally DZN at a dose 12. 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w)/day (1/100 LD50), Group III: MSO group-rats received orally 200 mg/kg b.w/day MSO, Group IV: MSO + DZN group DZN plus MSO was given. The administration of DZN increased (P 0.05) ALT, AST, ALP, lactic dehydrogenase, triglycerides and total cholesterol in serum, compared to control group, while protein and albumin were decreased. High levels of liver LPO and low antioxidant defenses, catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as glutathione (GSH) concentration in DZN-treated group. In rats supplemented with MSO as well as treated with DZN, hepatic specific marker enzymes were restored. Conclusions: Moringa oleifera seed oil may have hepatoprotective effect which is probably due to its antioxidant property. Keywords: Diazinon; Oxidative Stress; Antioxidants; Liver; Moringa Seed Oil 1. Introduction:Pesticides are occasionally used indiscriminately in large amounts causing environmental pollution and therefore, are a cause of concern. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPIs) are widespread use in agricultural and public health. However, most of applied agricultural pesticides never reach target organisms, but disperse through the environment [1,2]. Diazinon (O,O-Diethyl O-[4-methyl-6-(propan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl] phosphorothioate) (DZN), is a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. It has been used since 1956 for the control of soil insects and pests, on ornamental plants, and on fruits, vegetables and field crops. Now it is used to control flies around animal facilities, greenhouses and other businesses and public places where food or animal wastes might be accumulated [3]. DZN can be highly toxic for animals and humankind [4,5]. The main mechanism of action of DZN is acetyl-cholinesterase enzyme inhibition [6]. However, DZN may induce imbalance in the free radical production/elimination processes with consequent induction of cellular damage [7-9].The importance of the naturally currently widespread botanicals that can be consumed in an individuals everyday diet because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [10]. Nature has been a source of medicinal treatments and up to 40% of modern drugs may directly or indirectly be related to natural compounds [11].Moringa oleifera is called Miracle Vegetable because it is both a medical and a functional food [12]. All parts of the Moringa tree (leaves, seeds, roots and flowers) are suitable for human and animal consumption. Moringa oleifera seed consists of oil, protein, fiber, moisture and ash. Oil and protein contents were 34. 80, 31.65%, respectively, thus some people use it as a nutritional supplement or tonic [13]. Moringa oleifera seed kernels contain a oleic acid which is resistance to oxidative degradation [14]. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant and the chemo protective effect of Moringa oleifera seed oil against diazinon-induced oxidative stress in rats.2. Materials and Methods2.1. ChemicalsTechnical grade Diazinon (DZN); O,O-Diethyl O-[4-methyl-6-(propan-2-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl] phosphorothioate (98% purity) was donated from El-Helb, Pesticides and Chemicals, New Damietta, Egypt. It was diluted in corn oil for preparing the required concentrations. Dosing concentrations were freshly prepared during the administration period. Moringa seed oil (MSO) was purchased from Earths Moringa P.O. Box 39503, Los Angeles, CA 90039. Reduced glutathione (GSH), 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), H2O2 (33%), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), reduced glutathione (GSH), 5,5 dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), potassium fihydrogenphosphate (KH2PO4), butanol and sodium chloride (NaCl) of technical grade used in this study were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company (Saint Louis, USA). Other chemicals were supplied from Merck Led. SRL Pvt., Led., Mumbai, India. 2.2. AnimalsTwenty male Albino rats Sprague–Dawley, weighing 180–200 g, were supplied from the Animal Breeding House of the Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Animals were maintained at the animal care facility in the Faculty of Medicine, in plastic cages under controlled temperature (23  ± 2 oC), 12-h light/dark cycle and 50  ± 5% relative humidity. Water and food were available ad libitum. Rats were acclimatized to the laboratory environment for two weeks prior to the start of the experiments. Animal Care Experimental Committee, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, and all animal procedures were carried out in accordance with the Ethics Committee of the National Research Centre conformed to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory [15]. During the experiments, maximum care was taken to minimize animal suffering and in addition, the number of rats used was kept at minimum 2.3. Experimental designAfter two weeks of acclimatization, animals were divided into four (n = 5 rats per group) equal groups. †¢ Group 1: Control group; rats were given 1 mL/kg body weight (b,w)/day by gavage for 28 days;†¢ Group 2: DZN group; rats were given DZN 12.50 mg/kg b.w/day (1/100 LD50) by gavage for 28 days. The LD50 and the regime schedule were selected according to the previous study [16,17];†¢ Group 3: MSO group; MSO was given, 200 mg/kg b.w/day, by gavage for 28 days according to the previous study [18];†¢ Group 4: MSO + DZN group; rats were given first with (MSO (200 mg/kg b.w/day) by gavage and after 30 min were given DZN (12.50 mg/kg b. w/day (1/100 LD50) by gavage for 28 days.2.4. Sample collection and preparationThe animals were starved overnight for 12h before blood was collected. Rats were anaesthetized with rats were weighed and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg i.p.), and venous blood samples were collected by direct heart puncture into sterilized vials. Blood samples were allowed set to clot at 4 oC and centrifuged at 2500 g for 10 min. Then 1000 ?l aliquots of serum were placed in microfuge tubes and frozen on dry ice. Labeled bags were placed into freezer at -20 oC until the time of the assay.Livers was removed from rats under anesthesia, after 28 days of treatment and washed with cold saline buffer to remove any clotted blood or tissue debris. Washed livers were immediately stored at – 80 oC. To obtain the enzymatic extract, tissues were homogenized in ice-cold 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) contains 0. 1 mM ethylendiaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) to yield 10% (W/V) homogenate. The tissue homogenates were then centrifuged 1500 Xg for 20 minutes at 4  ºC. The supernatants were kept at – 80  ºC till the time of determination of oxidative/antioxidant parameters. 2.5. Serum biomarkers All serum biomarkers were determined using a commercial kit in accordance with manufacturers instructions using a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-VIS Recording 2401 PC, Japan). Serum samples were analyzed for total protein by Lowry et al. [19]. Albumin concentration was determined by the method of Doumas et al. [20]. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT; EC and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; EC 2. 6.1.1) activities were determined using commercial kits obtained from Biodiagnostic kit (Cairo, Egypt). The principle reaction of the colorimetric determination of AST or ALT activity is based on the reaction of aspartate or alanine with ?ketoglutarate to form oxaloacetate or pyruvate hydrazone formed with 2, 4dinitrophenylhydrazine [21]. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC 3.1.3. 1) activity was measured at 405 nm by the formation of para-nitrophenol from para-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate [22] using commercial kits obtained from Biodiagnostic kit (Cairo, Egypt). Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC was determined according to the method of Friedman and Young [23], using kit obtained from Spinreact (Santa Coloma, Spain). Cholesterol and triglycerides was measured according to the method Carr et al. [24] using Biodiagnostic kit (Cairo, Egypt). 2.6. Lipid peroxidation assayThe extent of LPO was estimated as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA) by using the method of Ohkawa et al. [25]. MDA concentrations were determined using 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane as standard and expressed as nmol/g liver tissue.2.7. Antioxidant enzymes Catalase (CAT, EC. activity was measured according to the method described by Aebi by assaying the hydrolysis of H2O2 and the resulting decrease in absorbance at 240 nm over a 3 min period at 25 oC [26]. The activity of CAT enzyme is expressed as U/gm tissue. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC 1. 11.1.9) activity was measured using H2O2 as substrate according to the method described by Paglia and Valentine [27]. The reaction was monitored indirectly as the oxidation rate of NADPH at 240 nm for 3 min. Enzyme activity was expressed as U/gm tissue. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15. 1.1) activity was determined according to the method described by Marklund and Marklund by assaying the autooxidation and illumination of pyrogallol at 440 nm for 3 min [28]. 2.8. Reduced glutathione assayReduced GSH estimation was performed by the method of Beutler et al. [29]. Livers were homogenized in 1 ml of 1. 1% KCl cooled, then homogenate (100  µl) was mixed with 750  µL of precipitate solution (1.67 g glacial meta-phosphoric acid, 0.2 g EDTA and 30 g of NaCl in 100 ml D.W.) and 900  µl of D.W. Homogenated tissue were centrifuged at 2000g for 15 min to precipitate proteins. Protein-free supernatant (250  µl) was added to 1ml of Na2HPO4 (0.0 M) solution and the reaction was initiated by adding 125  µl of DTNB (6 mM) and the absorbance of 5-thio-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) formed was measured at 412 nm. The level of GSH was obtained by standard curve and expressed as U/g tissue.2.9. Statistical analysisAll data were expressed as mean  ± standard deviation (SD) and then subjected to one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukeys multiple comparison tests. Values of p